Landscape architects use a variety of tools to create miniature models of their designs, such as clay, balsa wood, templates, drawing supplies, markers, paint, pencils, and pens. Paving stones are one of the most popular materials used in landscaping due to their ease of installation and aesthetic appeal. There are several types of pavers available, including clay pavers, concrete, brick, natural stone, and precast pavers. Each type has its own unique colors and textures that make them suitable for any landscape design.
Paving stones should have a space between joints of 2 inches to 3 inches for easy installation and should be sealed periodically to prevent wear and tear. The iterative process of planning, designing, and evaluating performance by a multidisciplinary team is the foundation of landscape engineering. These figures are important for for-profit landscapes such as wetlands for wastewater treatment or agroecological agricultural sites. Louis George Carpenter was the father of the first degree in Irrigation Engineering in the Americas and was a university professor and dean of Engineering & Physics at Colorado State University.
An example of contemporary landscape engineering and natural resource management is the IBTS greenhouse designed for the Emirate of Ras al Khaimah.